Fact sheet: Cuban support for Terrorism
Center for Free Cuba Fact Sheet Cuban support for Terrorism

Cuba – International sponsor of terrorism for more than six decades

On March 1, 1982 Cuba was placed on the list of state sponsors of terrorism. This was less than three months after the US State Department confirmed that Havana was using a narcotics ring to funnel both arms and cash to the Colombian M19 terrorist group then battling to overthrow Colombia’s democratic government.

The Cuban government’s behavior did not change and Havana remained on the terror sponsor list for thirty three years, under both Democratic and Republican administrations.

On May 29, 2015 the Obama Administration removed Cuba from the list of state sponsors of terrorism. The underlying reasons Cuba had first been placed on the list had not changed, but was driven by the White House’s desire to normalize diplomatic relations with Havana, and the Castro regime conditioning it on being taken off the list. It was a political decision, not one based in a change in regime behavior.

The State Department on January 11, 2021 re-designated Cuba a state terror sponsor.

Cuba in 2021 continues to harbor dozens of wanted terrorists, among them the notorious cop-killers Joanne Chesimard and Charles Lee Hill. Havana provides a safe-haven for leaders of the Colombian terrorist group Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN) and maintains close ties with terror sponsor states North Korea, Iran, and Syria.

The State Department highlighted that “Cuba has refused Colombia’s requests to extradite ten ELN leaders living in Havana after the group claimed responsibility for the January 2019 bombing of a Bogota police academy that killed 22 people and injured more than 87 others.” It also mentioned that “the Cuban government’s support for FARC dissidents and the ELN continues beyond Cuba’s borders as well, and the regime’s support of Maduro has created a permissive environment for international terrorists to live and thrive within Venezuela.”

The Cuban government’s support for these and many other terrorist groups is extensive. Havana’s role in fomenting international terrorism over the past six decades is well documented and was outlined by the Cuban Studies Institute in 2020 and is available online.

The 2017 book, Historia de un desafío: Cinco décadas de lucha sin cuartel de la Guardia Civil contra ETA, authors Manuel Sánchez and Manuela Simón reveal that, “In the spring of 1964, ETA militants received training in Cuba with lessons on kidnappings, subversion and sabotage. Thus began the ideological and terrorist training that would later be a constant in the history of the terrorist band.”

The origins of Havana’s relationship with the National Liberation Army (Ejército de Liberación Nacional; ELN) was also in 1964.

Six decade relationship with the Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN)

Britannica reports that the “National Liberation Army (Ejército de Liberación Nacional; ELN), was created by a group of Colombian students who had studied in Cuba” in 1964. Former members of the Brigada Pro Liberación Nacional founded the ELN while on “a scholarship program” in Cuba, because they “felt the Colombian majority was excluded by the state”, according to Stanford University’s Center for International Security and Cooperation (CISAC). The ELN followed “strategies espoused by Che Guevara.”

Rex A Hudson, of the Library of Congress, in his book, CASTRO’S AMERICA DEPARTMENT: Coordinating Cuba’s Support for Marxist-Leninist Violence in the Americas published in 1988 reported that “Six FARC deserters revealed in August 1987 that various FARC fronts have Cuban advisers attached to them. Other deserters reported that Cubans also are working as advisers and instructors for the ELN and are directing its ecologically and economically disastrous sabotage of oil installations. Numerous ELN kidnappings of oil company officials and a powerful ELN car-bomb that blew up in front of the U.S. Occidental Petroleum Company in Bogotá in February 1988 demonstrated the terrorist trend of the ELN campaign.”

The kidnapping of President Belasario Betancur’s brother, a magistrate, by the ELN in November 1983 provided the first opportunity for Fidel Castro to reveal himself as the godfather of Colombia’s terrorist groups. After the kidnapping provoked a storm of national indignation, Castro, at the urging of President Betancur, publically called on the ELN to release its hostage. The ELN complied almost immediately, dropping all of its ransom demands.”

Insight Crime reported that by “the mid-1990s, the ELN reached its apex, commanding an army of close to 5,000 soldiers and at least three times that in student, union and political supporters. It regularly bombed the country’s largest oil pipelines, including those that supplied oil from BP’s and Occidental Petroleum’s fields in the Eastern Plains region, even while it siphoned from the royalties this oil provided the region. It drew revenue from war taxes levied on coca and marijuana growers, particularly in the southern part of the Bolívar department, where the ELN’s leadership had established its home base”

In November of 2017 former Cuban diplomat, Jose Antonio “Tony” Lopez was linked to terrorists responsible for the June 17, 2017 bombing in Bogota, Colombia that killed three and injured nine according to prosecutors in the South American country. A mother of one of the accused denied her son’s involvement in the attack but confirmed the link with the former Cuban diplomat. He also had links to FARC and the ELN.

Lt. Col. Geoff Demarest, JD, PhD, U.S. Army, Retired wrote an article in the July-August 2020 issue of the Military Review: The Professional Journal of the U.S. Army titled “The National Liberation Army (ELN), Early 2020” where he describes how “the ELN as a cohesive identity is subordinate strategically to the Partido Comunista de Cuba (Communist Party of Cuba, or PCC) and to the Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela (United Socialist Party of Venezuela, or PSUV). The PSUV, in any case, is a subordinate sister of the PCC, which is the apex geopolitical organization.”1

According to Lt. Col. Geoff Demarest, “[t]he ELN is currently the go-to Bolivarian assault force that has been and will increasingly be used to attack targets within Colombian territory. These attacks are part of a multiform war waged by the PCC and the PSUV to gain control over most of northern South America. The PCC has effectively consolidated strategic control over Venezuelan geography, at least in terms of international interference with that control. The principal theater of war is now Colombia.”

The ELN’s attacks on the Colombian government with safe harbor in Venezuela, aided by Cuban intelligence agents, and its leadership protected and oriented by the Cuban government in Havana falls under the legal definition of international terrorism.

International terrorism is defined in 18 U.S. Code 2331 as activities that

“(A) involve violent acts or acts dangerous to human life that are a violation of the criminal laws of the United States or of any State, or that would be a criminal violation if committed within the jurisdiction of the United States or of any State;

(B) appear to be intended—

(i) to intimidate or coerce a civilian population;

(ii) to influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion; or

(iii) to affect the conduct of a government by mass destruction, assassination, or kidnapping; and(

C) occur primarily outside the territorial jurisdiction of the United States, or transcend national boundaries in terms of the means by which they are accomplished, the persons they appear intended to intimidate or coerce, or the locale in which their perpetrators operate or seek asylum;”

Cuban soldiers and intelligence agents are active in Venezuela today. The Prague-based CASLA Institute in its 2021 report “Venezuela: Crimes Against Humanity, Systematic Repression and Torture, Responsibility of the Cuban regime” presented testimonies they obtained in 2020 from Venezuelan civilian and military witnesses who were tortured by Cuban officers present in Venezuela. A rape was also reported.

Cuba links to terror attacks targeting Americans

Cuban diplomats Elsa Montera Maldonado and Jose Gomez Abad, a husband and wife team at the Cuba Mission in New York City, who in reality were State Security agents, plotted to murder large numbers of Americans. Both were expelled for their role in the planned terrorist attack on the Friday after Thanksgiving in 1962 which sought to detonate 500 kilos of explosives inside Macy’s, Gimbel’s, Bloomingdale’s and Manhattan’s Grand Central Terminal.

They failed in 1962, but the Cuban spy services through proxies would have success in the 1970s and 1980s in killing Americans on U.S. soil.

Zach Dorfman’s article in The Wall Street Journal on June 8, 2017, “How Fidel Castro Supported Terrorism in America: ‘FALN was started in the mid-1960’s with a nucleus . . . that received advanced training in Cuba.’” In the article Mr. Dorfman documented how the Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional Puertorriqueña, or FALN between the mid-1970s and mid-1980s “perpetrated more than 130 bombings. It was responsible for the 1975 explosion at Fraunces Tavern, which killed four and wounded 63; a bombing spree in New York City in August 1977 that killed one, injured six, and forced the evacuation of 100,000 office workers; and the purposeful targeting and maiming of four police officers, among many other vicious crimes.”

Furthermore Mr. Dorfman reported that “[a]ccording to court documents, Filiberto Ojeda Ríos, who is believed to have helped co-found the FALN, told an undercover NYPD officer in 1983 that he had received explosives training in Cuba. And the FBI estimated that by 1973, roughly 135 Puerto Rican militants had received “extensive instruction in guerilla war tactics, preparation of explosive artifacts, and sophisticated methods of sabotage” from Fidel Castro’s intelligence services.”

The Castro regime’s ideology

The Tricontinental Conference held in Havana from January 3 – 16, 1966 and the founding of the Organization for the Solidarity of the Peoples of Asia, Africa and Latin America (OSPAAL) were efforts to support revolutionary and terrorist groups in Europe, the Americas, and Asia. Palestinian terrorists were publicly welcomed in Cuba by Fidel Castro when he introduced Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) members at the Tri-Continental Conference in January 1966.

Ilich Ramírez Sánchez attended the Third Tricontinental Conference in January 1966 with his father. Following the gathering, Ilyich reportedly spent the summer at Camp Matanzas, a guerrilla warfare school run by the Cuban DGI near Havana. He was just 17 years old, but became known in the 1970s, after a string of terrorist attacks, as Carlos the Jackal.

According to Dr. Suchlicki of the Cuban Studies Institute at the Conference “Castro insisted that ‘bullets not ballots’ was the way to achieve power.” The Cuban dictator maintained that “‘conditions exist[ed] for an armed revolutionary struggle’ and criticized those who opposed armed struggle, including some Communist leaders in Latin America, as ‘traitorous, rightists, and deviationists.’”

Rex A. Hudson in his 1988 book “CASTRO’S AMERICA DEPARTMENT: Coordinating Cuba’s Support for Marxist-Leninist Violence in the Americas” provided additional context to the first Tricontinental Conference and the others that followed.

“By hosting a series of international conferences of extremists in Havana during 1966-68, Castro succeeded in creating a nascent world terrorist fraternity and in strengthening his leadership role in it, especially in the Latin American movement. At the Tricontinental Conference, held in January 1966 and attended by 513 predominantly Castroite leaders of eighty-three Third World radical movements and CPs, Castro promised the delegates that “any revolutionary movement anywhere in the world can count on Cuba’s unconditional support.” (17) Nevertheless, Cuban support was no longer entirely unconditional. As Maurice Halperin points out, it was now contingent on recognition of: (1) Cuba’s present and future military role in Latin American guerrilla operations, and (2) undisputed Cuban political leadership and direction of Latin American revolutionary movements. (18)”

Havana explicitly views terrorism as a legitimate tactic to advance its revolutionary objectives. In 1970 the Cuban government published the Mini Manual for Revolutionaries in the official Latin American Solidarity Organization (LASO) publication Tricontinental and translated it into many languages, written by Brazilian urban terrorist Carlos Marighella. It gives precise instructions in terror tactics, kidnappings, etc. and was distributed worldwide by the Cuban dictatorship. There is a chapter on terrorism that declares, “Terrorism is a weapon the revolutionary can never relinquish.”

This manual is still circulating today and the Cuban dictatorship has trained terrorists that targeted the United States and other countries in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s with acts of violence with the objective of altering political behavior. John Hoyt Williams in a 1988 article in The Atlantic reported: “In the Arab world some 3,000 [Cuban advisers] can be found in Libya and Algeria, among other things training terrorists and Polisario guerrillas.”

The Castro regime’s fascination with terrorism and insurrections was not initially backed by the Soviets. This agenda of exporting insurgencies and terrorism was a Cuban initiative without Soviet support through the 1960s. Samuel T. Frances in his November 9, 1979 essay “Latin American Terrorism: The Cuban Connection” published by The Heritage Foundation found that “[a]lmost every significant Latin American terrorist group of left-wing orientation has had or has today links with Cuba.” According to Mr. Frances, “prior to the effective satellization of Cuba by the USSR in 1969-70, the Soviets did not approve of revolutionary insurgencies as effective tools in Latin America mainly because the Soviets did not themselves control such insurgencies.”

Fidel and Raul Castro caught in act of state terrorism

The Castro regime was caught planning out and executing an act of state terrorism that killed three U.S. citizens and resident in international airspace in 1996, and eventually led to the exposure of a high level spy at the Pentagon in 2001.

The current Senate Foreign Relations Committee Chairman Bob Menendez (NJ), a Congressman in 1996 spoke on the Congressional Record after the February 24, 1996 Brothers to the Rescue shootdown and denounced the crime in specific terms on February 27, 1996.

It is now interesting to note that yesterday the Cuban Government openly bragged about a pilot who they sent to infiltrate Brothers to the Rescue and returned to Cuba the day before the incident. It is now apparent that that individual, Juan Pablo Roque, transmitted information to the Castro regime about the Brothers to the Rescue’s flight plans for Saturday, and so we have here the facts developing of why I say that this act was premeditated murder and it is in fact an act of state terrorism.

You have an infiltrator pilot who tells the regime, Brothers to the Rescue are flying, they are flying one of their search-and-rescue missions, they will be in international airspace but near Cuban airspace, and therefore sets them up as clay pigeons. And you have a situation in which Castro’s regime itself was thinking about the possibility of shooting down innocent civilians, asking a former retired general who was in Cuba about the United States reaction to such an event. Hence, the premeditation.

Raúl Castro was “heard detailing how he planned and ordered the operation to shoot down the BTTR airplanes in a voice recording made public in 2006 by El Nuevo Herald.” Fidel Castro implicated himself in ordering the shoot down in an interview with Dan Rather.

Later it was learned that there had been an elaborate operation to carry out this act of state terrorism.

The WASP Network (La Red Avispa) was made up of over forty officers and agents, four escaped to Cuba when the FBI began rounding them up in 1998. Ten were captured, and five of them pleaded guilty and cooperated with the prosecution and became unpersons in Cuba.

The Wasp Network engaged in espionage: targeted U.S. military facilities, planned to smuggle arms and explosives into the United States, infiltrated two non-violent exile groups, and carried out numerous other activities to sow division, shape public opinion, meddle in U.S. elections, and provided information for Operation Scorpion that led to the extrajudicial killings of Armando Alejandre, Carlos Costa, Mario de la Peña and Pablo Morales on February 24, 1996. Operation Scorpion was a Cuban intelligence operation of the Castro regime that sought to destroy Brothers to the Rescue using MiG fighters to shoot down their planes in an act of state terrorism carried out over international airspace.

This network also gathered personal information of American military personnel “compiling the names, home addresses, and medical files of the U.S. Southern Command’s top officers and that of hundreds of officers stationed at Boca Chica Naval Station in Key West.”

The five spies who did not cooperate, remained loyal to the dictatorship, and became the focus of an international propaganda campaign organized by Havana. Rene Gonzalez served 13 years of his 15 year prison sentence and was the first of the spies freed in 2011. The second to be freed was Fernando Gonzalez after completing his sentence in February 2014. The campaign did not end until December 2014 when the remaining three spies (Gerardo Hernandez, Antonio Guerrero, and Ramon Labanino ) with the longest prison sentences, had them commuted by President Obama.

History of terrorism

Since 1959, Cuba has been responsible for countless terrorist plots, directly through regime agents or indirectly through proxies such as the National Liberation Army, Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN) in Colombia, Political Group Fourteenth of June “Agrupación Política Catorce de Junio” in the Dominican Republic, the Movement of the Revolutionary Left, Movimiento de la Izquierda Revolucionaria (MIR) in Venezuela, the Guerrilla Army of the Poor, Ejército Guerrillero de los Pobres (EGP) in Guatemala, the Armed Forces of National Liberation, the Weather Underground in the United States, Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional (FALN) and the Ejército Popular Boricua, also known as the “Macheteros” (Cane-Cutters) in Puerto Rico and the continental United States. These groups carried out terrorist acts in their respective countries with the assistance and training of the Cuban government’s intelligence services .

Middle East

Havana also provided military assistance to the terrorists of the National Liberation Front in Algeria in the early 1960s in their war against France. The Castro regime welcomed the founding of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO), and made first contacts with the Palestinian FATAH in 1965 in Algiers and Damascus.

Throughout the 1970s the Castro regime’s Dirección de Inteligencia ( Intelligence Directorate), sent their agents to PLO camps in Lebanon to train and assist Palestinian terrorists. Cuba broke relations with Israel in 1973, and sent thousands of Cuban troops to support Syria in the invasion of the Jewish nation during the Yom Kippur War. Israeli’s won the war and Cuban troops left Syria in 1975.

Yasser Arafat made eight official visits to Castro’s Cuba [The Arafat Foundation]

Yasser Arafat, chairman of the PLO, made his first official visit to Cuba in 1974 and met with Fidel Castro. According to Mansour Tahboub, former acting director of the Arafat Foundation, this was the first of as many as eight trips to Cuba. According to Tahboub, “the Cubans trained Palestinian cadres.

Arafat, Castro, and Syria’s Hafez al-Assad condemned Egypt’s signing of the 1978 Camp David Accords with Israel at the 6th Non-Aligned Summit in Havana in September 1979. The accords emerged out of a series of meetings between Egypt and Israel in which President James Carter, representing the United States, was a mediator.

According to an Annex of a Central Intelligence Agency report unclassified on October 1, 2018 titled Cuba’s renewed support for violence in Latin America, “Cuba also assists the Salvadoran guerrillas in contacts with Arab radical states and movements to arrange military training and financing for arms acquisitions. … In March 1981, the Salvadoran Communist Party Secretary, General Shafik Handal, visited Lebanon and Syria to meet with Palestinian leaders. Cuba also coordinates the training of a relatively small number of Salvadoran guerrillas in Palestinian camps in the Mideast.”

This was not a one way street. Between 1976 and 1982 the CIA estimated that there were 300 Palestinians training in Cuban camps.

The Castro regime through its Tricontinental provided an international venue for the cross pollination of terrorist tactics across three continents beginning in the 1960s. This did not end with the end of the Cold War.

On February 13, 2016 Vice News reported that in 2011 Secretary of State Hillary Clinton had been warned that the Iranian-linked Islamist terrorist group Hezbollah was setting up an operational base in Cuba to carry out attacks in Latin America that might also involve attacks on American diplomatic posts or banks there.

According to the Cuban Studies Institute in their May 20, 2020 report, “Hezbollah, on orders from Hasan Nasrallah, set up an operational base in Cuba” and “Havana directly and through Venezuela continues to provide intelligence to Hamas and Hezbollah.”

Ilich Ramírez Sánchez a.k.a Carlos the Jackal

Europe

France expelled three high‐ranking Cuban diplomats on July 10, 1975 in connection with the worldwide search for a man called Carlos, who was an important link in an international terrorist network. The suspect, whose real name is Ilich Ramírez Sánchez, was sought in the killing of two French counterintelligence agents and a Lebanese informer at a Latin Quarter apartment on June 27. “The French Interior Ministry said that investigators were convinced that the terrorist network had been helped significantly by the intelligence services of ‘certain nations.’ The Cubans, according to the ministry, had been “constant visitors” to the Paris hideout of Carlos,” reported The New York Times. Cuban diplomats on whom expulsion orders were served “were Raul Rodriguez Sainz, 32 years old, first secretary for cultural affairs; Pedro Lara Zamora, 33, deputy cultural attache, and Ernesto Reyes Herrera, 32, the chief of protocol,” reported the paper of record.

The New York Times reported on October 9, 1977 that “according to a top‐secret report of the Federal Bureau of Investigation” prepared in August 1976 and 400 pages long, “Cuban espionage agents operating in the United States and Canada supplied limited aid to the Weather Underground, a militant antiwar organization, in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s.”

On March 1, 1971 the Weather Underground claimed credit for bombing the U.S. Capitol building in Washington, D.C., and causing $300,000 in damage in a terrorist attack that was politically motivated. The FBI listed the bombings of the Weather Underground under their famous cases. Below is an excerpt taken from their website.

“On January 29, 1975, an explosion rocked the headquarters of the U.S. State Department in Washington, D.C. No one was hurt, but the damage was extensive, impacting 20 offices on three separate floors. Hours later, another bomb was found at a military induction center in Oakland, California, and safely detonated.” … “[T]he group had claimed credit for 25 bombings—including the U.S. Capitol, the Pentagon, the California Attorney General’s office, and a New York City police station.” … “In 1978, the Bureau arrested five members who were plotting to bomb a politician’s office. Others were captured after two policemen and a Brinks’ driver were murdered in a botched armored car robbery in Nanuet, New York, in 1981.”

The FBI’s Office of the Inspector General in 2006 provided a summary of the activities of the founder of the Puerto Rican terrorist groups listed above, Filiberto Ojeda Ríos, and his links to the Cuban intelligence services.

Filiberto Ojeda Ríos was born in Puerto Rico in 1933. According to FBI records and press accounts, Ojeda spent several years in Cuba in the 1960s and received training from the Government of Cuba as an intelligence officer. Ojeda returned to Puerto Rico in the mid-1960s and allegedly organized the Movimiento Independentista Revolucionario Armado, a pro-independence group suspected of several bombing attacks on the mainland United States during 1970-1971. In the 1970s, Ojeda allegedly fled to New York to avoid prosecution in Puerto Rico, and helped to found the Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional (FALN), whose stated goal was an armed struggle for Puerto Rican independence. The FALN was implicated in a series of bombings in the United States in the 1970s that killed six people and injured many more.

According to press accounts and FBI investigative files, Ojeda returned to Puerto Rico in the mid-1970s and helped to organize the Ejército Popular Boricua, also known as the “Macheteros” (Cane-Cutters). Until his death, Ojeda was the leader of and spokesman for the Macheteros. The publicly stated goal of the Macheteros is to obtain the independence of Puerto Rico by armed struggle against the United States government. The FBI considers the Macheteros to be a terrorist organization. A timeline of major events in the history of the Macheteros is provided in Figure 1.

The Macheteros have claimed responsibility for various acts of violence in Puerto Rico as part of their armed struggle. These acts included the murder of a police officer in Naguabo, Puerto Rico, in August 1978. In December 1979, members of Macheteros attacked a United States Navy bus, killing two passengers and wounding nine. On May 16, 1982, the Macheteros attacked four sailors from the U.S.S. Pensacola in San Juan, killing one.

The Macheteros have also claimed responsibility for numerous bombings in Puerto Rico. On October 17, 1979, the Macheteros conducted eight bomb attacks against various federal facilities across Puerto Rico. In January 1981, the organization used bombs to destroy nine U.S. fighter aircraft at the Muniz Air National Guard Base in Carolina, Puerto Rico. Later the same year, the Macheteros bombed three separate buildings of the Puerto Rico Electric Company. In 1983, the Macheteros fired a Light Anti-Tank Weapon (commonly called a LAW rocket) into the U.S. Federal Building in Hato Rey, Puerto Rico, damaging the offices of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the FBI. In January 1985, the Macheteros fired a LAW rocket into a building that housed the U.S. Marshals Service and other federal agencies in Old San Juan.

In 1983 the Cuban government provided financial and logistical support for the Wells Fargo armored car robbery which netted the Macheteros ( a terrorist group) $7.1 million dollars of which $2 million made its way back to Cuba via a diplomatic pouch. The story is detailed in a 2012 Hartford Courant article published in 2012. According to the FBI, “the Wells Fargo robbery was one of the largest bank robberies in U.S. history.”

Other Resources

Cuban Studies Institute “CUBA’S COMMITMENT TO VIOLENCE, TERRORISM AND ANTI-AMERICANISM” Jaime Suchlicki & Eugene Pons May 2020 https://cubanstudiesinstitute.us/principal/cubas-commitment-to-violence-terrorism-and-anti-americanism/

Cambridge University Press “Cuba’s First Venture in Africa: Algeria, 1961–1965” *Published online by Cambridge University Press: 05 February 2009 Piero Gleijeses https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-latin-american-studies/article/abs/cubas-first-venture-in-africa-algeria-19611965/5ED94AB09630E4BBDDC8BB14646C05C9

Canal 1 “Otra versión en el caso de Mateo Gutiérrez, estudiante señalado por ser miembro del MRPRedacción digital CM& “ 12 de noviembre del 2017 https://noticias.canal1.com.co/noticias/otra-version-caso-mateo-gutierrez-estudiante-preso-bomba-al-andino/

The New York Times “FRANCE EXPELLING 3 CUBAN OFFICIALS” By Nan Robertson Special to The New York Times July 11, 1975 https://www.nytimes.com/1975/07/11/archives/france-expelling-3-cuban-officials-diplomats-said-to-be-linked-with.html

The New York Times “F.B.I. ASSERTS CUBA AIDED WEATHERMEN” By Nicholas M. Horrock Special to The New York Times Oct. 9, 1977 https://www.nytimes.com/1977/10/09/archives/fbi-asserts-cuba-aided-weathermen-secret-data-on-war-protest-years.html

Hartford Courant “Case Closed On Wells Fargo Robbery; Except For Missing $7 Million And Top Fugitive” EDMUND H. MAHONY https://www.courant.com/news/connecticut/hc-xpm-2012-11-24-hc-macheteros-cuba-20121124-story.html

The New York Times “Car Bombing Strikes Police Academy, Killing at Least 21 in Colombia” By Jenny Carolina González and Nicholas Casey Jan. 17, 2019 https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/17/world/americas/colombia-bomb-bogota-bomb.html

Radio Television Marti “Reacciones a la designación de Cuba como Estado patrocinador del terrorismo” por Michelle Sagué enero 11, 2021 https://www.radiotelevisionmarti.com/a/reacciones-a-la-designaci%C3%B3n-de-cuba-como-estado-patrocinador-del-terrorismo/282649.html

Federal Bureau of Investigation “A Review of the September 2005 Shooting Incident Involving the Federal Bureau of Investigation and Filiberto Ojeda Ríos “ Office of the Inspector General August 2006 https://oig.justice.gov/sites/default/files/archive/special/s0608/chapter2.htm

PANAMPOST “Vinculan a exdiplomático cubano con terroristas del atentado al Centro Andino de Bogotá” Andrés Fernández, 16 noviembre 2017 https://panampost.com/felipe-fernandez/2017/11/16/exdiplomatico-atentado-bogota/