CubaBrief: What Cuba can learn from New Zealand’s COVID-19 response. Buyer beware: Castro regime seeks to sell vaccines abroad as it did Interferon in 2020.

In New Zealand, a democratic country with a population of 4.9 million that has dealt effectively with COVID-19, some voices are claiming that there is much to learn from the approach taken in Cuba, and are already calling Cuba a “vaccine powerhouse.” The data says otherwise, it is Cuba that has a lot to learn from New Zealand, and that is with numbers provided by the Cuban government that cannot be relied on to be accurate, but more than unlikely reporting the full impact of the pandemic. Taking into account population differences, the number of cases and deaths per million in each respective country demonstrates that New Zealand has successfully contained the disease by an order of magnitude compared to Cuba.

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New Zealand has a Freedom Score (measured by Freedom House in their annual Freedom in the World report ) of 99 out of a possible 100. This places Wellington in fourth place in Freedom House’s rankings. for the maximum compared to the United States with a Freedom Score of 83 that finds it tied with South Korea, Romania, Monaco, and Panama in 57th place. Cuba has a Freedom Score of 13 that finds it tied with Laos. This places Havana as tied for 24th least free country on the planet.

This absence of political and civil liberties in Cuba manifests itself in the absence of a free press, and independent and transparent governing institutions that despite official claims has also negatively impacted public health, but are obscured by regime propaganda.

The responses by these two island nations to the COVID-19 pandemic should be instructive to the principle that political freedom in addition to being correlated to greater prosperity for greater numbers is also seen in public health.

If one looks at the steps taken by New Zealand that identified the first COVID-19 case on February 28, 2020. On March 6, 2020 Granma, the official communist newspaper of Cuba, made the claim that “to date, no cases of Coronavirus ( Covid-19 ) have been confirmed in Cuba.”

Reuters reported the claim made by the official press in Cuba on March 11, 2020 that “four Italian tourists who were staying at a hostel in the southern town of Trinidad after arriving at Havana airport on Monday [March 9, 2020] had presented respiratory symptoms and were taken to a hospital on Tuesday [March 10th] . On Wednesday [March 11th], the hospital confirmed that three of the tourists had tested positive for the coronavirus, the broadcaster said.” Panama’s Ministry of Health, a day earlier, on March 10th reported that two Panamanians, ages 55 and 29 who visited Cuba had tested positive for the coronavirus when they returned home. The ability to deny that COVID-19 was not circulating on the island was no longer tenable.

Also on March 11, 2020, Nicolas Maduro was promoting Cuba’s “interferon” as a cure that saved “around 3,500 lives in China” declaring Cuba in the vanguard, Caribbean National Weekly called it the antidote for COVID-19, and Newsweek was calling it a “wonder drug.”

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The reality is far more humble. Interferon Alpha-2B Recombinant (IFNrec) was jointly developed with China, but they did not pioneer the discovery of interferon. Interferon research, not surprisingly, was pioneered in Switzerland in the 1950s. Nevertheless, a year later Madhu Pai, a professor and Canada Research Chair of Epidemiology and Global Health at McGill University in Montreal, offers the following assessment of Interferon alpha-2b that it is “not proven and not routinely advised for COVID-19.”

The military-run tourism industry continued to pitch Cuba as a travel destination and posted a tweet on March 13, 2020 claiming that Coronavirus does not replicate at high temperatures and that the island is now 29-32 degrees Celsius. Havanatour is owned and run by the Cuban military. At least 147,900 Italian tourists and 49,781 Chinese tourists traveled to Cuba in 2018 and Cuba’s military-run tourism industry sought to double the number of Chinese tourists. The claim that Cuba did not have coronavirus in larger numbers under these circumstances was highly unlikely.

Respected Cuban-American economist Carmelo Mesa-Lago in a Harvard webinar on May 1, 2020 noted that in Cuba, “there is no independent entity that can report its own [coronavirus] figures or criticize the government’s data.”

According to data reviewed by the Miami Herald and reported by Nora Gamez, “in the week ending on March 21 there were 144,095 newly reported ‘acute respiratory illnesses.’ By March 28, the number of new weekly cases of people with acute respiratory diseases rose to 188,816, more than double the weekly average this year. ‘Not only could the increase be explained by a COVID-19 outbreak, it most likely does reflect the COVID-19 outbreak based on when it started and what has been going on in the world,’ said Dr. Aileen Marty, an expert on infectious tropical diseases and director of the Florida International University Health Travel Medicine Program.”

Footage emerged in April 2020 of a dead body in a street in Pinar del Río, and police, afraid of being infected, refused to take the body.

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On March 19, 2020 Barbara Cruz, the marketing director of the Cuban Ministry of Tourism, said at a press conference that “Cuba has a strong health system and trained workers, including the self-employed ones.”

What Ms. Cruz left out, in addition to the true extent of COVID-19 on the island, was that what remains of an effective healthcare system in Cuba is despite, not because of, the current dictatorship.

The hard reality is that Cuba’s glory days of “cutting-edge” medicine predate the Castro regime. Professor James W. McGuire and Laura B. Frankel in their paper published in the Latin American Research Review, “Mortality Decline in Cuba, 1900-1959: Patterns, Comparisons, and Causes” found that “Cuba’s progress relative to other Latin American countries at reducing infant mortality was even greater from 1900 to 1960 than from 1960 to 1995. During the earlier period, Cuba led all Latin American countries for which data are available at raising life expectancy and reducing infant mortality. From 1960 to 1995, by contrast, it came in fourth and fifth respectively.” Numbers don’t lie, although the Castro regime would like to disappear them. Not surprisingly, Cuba was a freer society during this period with a free press, opposition parties, and independent labor unions. All of this was done away with by the Castros and the results, predictably, have been disastrous.

The COVID-19 pandemic is not the first time that public health in Cuba has been sacrificed to other interests.

In 1997 a Cuban doctor was silenced for warning about a deadly dengue epidemic. Dr Desi Mendoza Rivero, married with four children at the time, was arrested on June 25, 1997. On November 28, 1997 he was sentenced to eight years in prison for “enemy propaganda.” Amnesty International declared Dr. Mendoza Rivero a prisoner of conscience and campaigned for his freedom. He was released on November 20, 1998 due to health reasons following the visit of the Spanish Foreign Minister,  under the condition that he leave Cuba for exile in Spain.

First official report to the World Health Organization of the dengue outbreak was six months after initial identification made by the jailed and later forcibly exiled physician. Mendoza Rivero’s reports were eventually confirmed. This episode would have a chilling effect on other doctors coming forward.

Journalist Calixto Martinez jailed for reporting on Cholera in 2012

Journalist Calixto Martinez jailed for reporting on Cholera in 2012

News of a cholera outbreak in Manzanillo, in the east of the island, broke in El Nuevo Herald on June 29, 2012 thanks to the reporting of an independent reporter in the island. Calixto Martinez, the independent Cuban journalist who broke the story was jailed. The state controlled media did not confirm the outbreak until days later on July 3, 2012. The BBC reported on July 7, 2012 that a patient had been diagnosed with cholera in Havana. The Cuban government stated that it had it under control and on August 28, 2012 said the outbreak was over

In July 2013 an Italian tourist returned from Cuba with severe renal failure due to cholera. New York high school teacher Alfredo Gómez contracted cholera during a family visit to Havana during the summer of 2013 and was billed $4,700 from the government hospital. A total of 12 tourists were identified who had contracted cholera in Cuba. On August 22, 2013 Reuters reported that Cuba was still struggling with cholera outbreaks in various provinces.

In the August 22, 2019 New York Times article by Carl Zimmer, “Zika Was Soaring Across Cuba. Few Outside the Country Knew“, the newspaper tries to shift the blame for an unreported outbreak of Zika in Cuba in 2017 on a reporting glitch. This ignored a decades-long government pattern of covering up epidemics.

“Until now, the Pan American Health Organization had no record of any Zika infection in Cuba in 2017, much less an outbreak. Following inquiries by The New York Times about the new study, published in the journal Cell, officials acknowledged that they had failed to tally 1,384 cases reported by Cuban officials that year. […] Officials at P.A.H.O., an arm of the World Health Organization, blamed the failure to publish timely data on the Cuba outbreak on a “technical glitch.” The information was held in a database, they said, but not visible on the website. By Thursday afternoon, the website had been updated.”

On January 8, 2019 New Scientist reported: “Cuba failed to report thousands of Zika virus cases in 2017,” and the reality, according to Duane Gubler at the Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore, is that “Cuba has a history of not reporting epidemics until they become obvious, and Zika is only mildly symptomatic in adults.” This is also true of COVID-19, although the consequences for those infected are potentially far worse than children born with severe birth defects due to Zika.

Early on in the COVID-19 crisis it was panicked Cubans that raised the alarm when the government wanted to continue with business as usual. Some Cuban teachers, ignoring official pronouncements that schools would remain open, closed a school. Ministry of Education authorities insisted students be required to attend classes and should bring “a small piece of soap” to school. The Roman Catholic Church spoke out. A group of nuns and priests released a document calling on the regime to take urgent measures to slow down the spread of the virus including: “That entry of tourism into the country be stopped, that social isolation be decreed,” educational centers be temporarily suspended and that work be done from home. They also called on the bishops to suspend religious gatherings including masses. Tragically, it was already too late.

This was not the case in Wellington.

New Zealand has successfully maintained its elimination strategy, and “about 560,000 people in the country of 5 million have received their first dose of the Pfizer vaccine while about 325,000 have been given a second dose,” and they expect to have all those eligible vaccinated by the end of the year. Despite these successes the government in Wellington had to defend and explain its actions in their last elections in 2020 to the public with criticisms from the opposition.

The Castro regime does not have to defend or explain its actions to remain in power, and public criticism is punishable by fines and prison.

Meanwhile Havana did not succeed in pursuing an elimination strategy and official data (which based on past history is questionable) shows an explosion in COVID-19 cases (the actual numbers are most likely far worse) with 1,123 total deaths. Most Latin American nations have pursued a strategy of obtaining vaccines for their populace from Russia, China, Europe, and the United States. Cuba has decided to develop its own vaccines, and is now beginning trials in Havana, collaborating with Iran and selling their vaccines to Venezuela, Vietnam, Iran and other countries. According to Reuters around “4.5% of Cuba’s 11 million inhabitants have received all three doses required for the country’s two most advanced vaccine candidates, Abdala and Soberana 2, state-run media reported this week.

The efficacy of these vaccines is not yet known, but with cases exploding in the island the obvious question that arises is why not use the existing available vaccines that have been tested, even if limited to vaccines from their allies in Russia and China, to save lives in Cuba now?

There are costs to engaging with communist dictatorships, and the world has been paying part of that cost since January 2020 with the outbreak of COVID-19 to the tune thus far of over four million dead, millions more with serious health impacts, and a global economy impacted with losses in the trillions of dollars creating more poverty and suffering around the world.

However the cost could possibly extend to the compromising of institutions in free countries leveraged by these dictatorships. The Voice of America reported on June 14, 2021 that “scientists who have been challenging the theory that the coronavirus emerged naturally and couldn’t have leaked from a Chinese lab are calling for an inquiry into the role played during the pandemic by leading Western science and medical journals, including Nature and The Lancet.”  Nikolai Petrovsky, a professor of medicine at Australia’s Flinders University, told VOA that these publications may have “wanted to appease the Chinese Communist Party, as China is where an increasing proportion of their revenue comes from, and China has made it clear that those journals it supports must agree to adhere to its policy agendas.”

It is not a stretch to expect that the Castro regime engages in these same practices using leverage over trading partners to lobby on their behalf, to cover up diseases that can impact public health for political and economic considerations. They have already done it repeatedly in the past, and policymakers should take that into account especially with this campaign to sell vaccines as a means to obtain hard currency.

Caveat emptor.

Reuters, June 17, 2021

Drop in Havana COVID-19 cases boosts hopes Cuban vaccines working

By Sarah Marsh

HAVANA (Reuters) – Coronavirus infections have halved in Havana since authorities started administering Cuba’s experimental vaccines en masse in the capital a month ago, official data shows, raising hopes about their efficacy even as cases increase nationwide.

FILE PHOTO: A health worker asks questions in a quarantine area amid concerns about the spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Havana, Cuba, April 8, 2021. Picture taken April 8, 2021. REUTERS/Alexandre Meneghini

FILE PHOTO: A health worker asks questions in a quarantine area amid concerns about the spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Havana, Cuba, April 8, 2021. Picture taken April 8, 2021. REUTERS/Alexandre Meneghini

The cash-strapped country, which has a reputed state-run biotech sector, has declined to import vaccines but still hopes to be among the first in the region to have vaccinated its whole population by year-end.

Critics said that Cuba’s plan against COVID-19 hinges though on whether the vaccines prove effective – a risky bet to make as it traverses its worst outbreak yet, with overall cases reaching record highs and a lockdown compounding economic woes.

Authorities have yet to release efficacy data for its most advanced vaccine candidates from late phase trials but have said they hope to do so this month.

Cuba has five experimental shots in various stages of clinical trials, with two in late phase trials already being administered en masse to the population in intervention studies – in particular in Havana, one of the worst-hit areas.

Cases in the capital have halved over the past month from a peak of around 800 per day, which officials have suggested is due to both the vaccines and tighter restrictions on gatherings and movement.

“We need to continue as fast as possible (applying vaccine candidates) to see the impact together with the (prevention) measures … and to stop cases from continuing to rise,” Cuba’s top epidemiologist Francisco Duran said on Wednesday.

The decline in Havana contrasts starkly with the steady rise in infections and deaths in the rest of the country after the arrival of more contagious variants. Overall, cases hit a new high of 1,537 on Tuesday.

That puts new infections at more than twice the global average on a per capita basis, although accumulated infections and deaths from COVID-19 in Cuba since the start of the pandemic remain a fraction of rates worldwide as authorities had the outbreak tamed for most of last year.

Around 4.5% of Cuba’s 11 million inhabitants have received all three doses required for the country’s two most advanced vaccine candidates, Abdala and Soberana 2, state-run media reported this week.

“I have a lot of faith in the Cuban vaccines,” said Havana resident and architect Ramón Ramírez Li, 37. “But we need to continue with the foot on the accelerator and staying careful every day.”

State-run biopharmaceutical corporation BioCubaFarma has talked about the potential for exporting the vaccines once the entire population is vaccinated. This would be a potential boon amid a tightening of the decades-old U.S. trade embargo in recent years.

An array of countries have already expressed an interest, particularly those that are politically aligned with Communist-ruled Cuba.

Iran is even conducting its own late phase trials of Soberana 2 and Cuban state-run media said this week it could announce its authorization for emergency use shortly.

Meanwhile, Cuba’s Health Minister Jose Portal held online talks on Wednesday with his Vietnamese counterpart to propose transferring vaccine production technology, Vietnam’s state-run news agency reported.

Reporting by Sarah Marsh; Additional Reporting by Nelson Acosta; editing by Grant McCool

https://www.reuters.com/article/health-coronavirus-cuba/drop-in-havana-covid-19-cases-boosts-hopes-cuban-vaccines-working-idUSL5N2NX5RH

Malay Mail, June 17, 2021

New Zealand lays out vaccine plan after grumbling over delay

Thursday, 17 Jun 2021 12:02 PM MYT

A health worker conducts a test at a Covid-19 coronavirus testing centre in the suburb of Northcote in Auckland August 12, 2020. — AFP pic

A health worker conducts a test at a Covid-19 coronavirus testing centre in the suburb of Northcote in Auckland August 12, 2020. — AFP pic

WELLINGTON, June 17 — New Zealand will take up to the end of the year to inoculate all those eligible for Covid-19 vaccinations, Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern said today, as she announced details of a vaccine campaign.

The Pacific island nation shut its borders and used tough lockdown measures to become one of the few countries to have virtually eliminated Covid-19, but the government is facing criticism for a slow rollout of vaccines.

About 560,000 people in the country of 5 million have received their first dose of the Pfizer vaccine while about 325,000 have been given a second dose.

“Based on the delivery and supply of vacancies we are working towards taking to the end of the year for vaccinating all those who are eligible,” Ardern told a news conference, adding that the drive was going faster than expected.

Announcing details of the plan, she said vaccines would be allocated according to age with people over 60 offered one from July 28 and those over 55 from August 11.

Those over the age of 45 would get vaccine invitations from mid to late August while those over 35 from mid to late September, and everyone else would be eligible from October, she said.

Ardern said the country would only get the bulk of its vaccine supply in October.

Having a large population vaccinated gives greater options on managing borders, she said, but some caution would still be needed at borders due to Covid-19 variants.

Experts are being consulted on how and when the border will open and modelling is being worked on, she said.

“Everyone is writing the rule book as we go. Difference we have is we have a different rule book to write,” said Ardern.

“Once you get rid of an elimination strategy it’s very hard to come back to it. So for New Zealand it’s about how do we preserve our position whilst having a little more freedom at the border.” — Reuters

https://www.malaymail.com/news/world/2021/06/17/new-zealand-lays-out-vaccine-plan-after-grumbling-over-delay/1982864

Voice of America, June 14, 2021

COVID-19 Pandemic

Chinese Lab-Leak Investigators Demand Inquiry into Role Science Journals Played During Pandemic

By Jamie Dettmer

June 14, 2021 08:15 AM

FILE PHOTO: Security personnel keep watch outside the Wuhan Institute of Virology during the visit by the World… FILE - Security personnel keep watch outside the Wuhan Institute of Virology during the visit by the World Health Organization (WHO) team tasked with investigating the origins of the coronavirus disease, in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, Feb. 3, 2

FILE PHOTO: Security personnel keep watch outside the Wuhan Institute of Virology during the visit by the World… FILE – Security personnel keep watch outside the Wuhan Institute of Virology during the visit by the World Health Organization (WHO) team tasked with investigating the origins of the coronavirus disease, in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, Feb. 3, 2

Scientists who have been challenging the theory that the coronavirus emerged naturally and couldn’t have leaked from a Chinese lab are calling for an inquiry into the role played during the pandemic by leading Western science and medical journals, including Nature and The Lancet. 

They say the editors of the influential journals rebuffed dozens of critical articles which raised at least the possibility of the coronavirus being engineered and that it might have subsequently leaked from a lab in Chinese city of Wuhan.  

“The managers of these journals may have wanted to appease the Chinese Communist Party, as China is where an increasing proportion of their revenue comes from, and China has made it clear that those journals it supports must agree to adhere to its policy agendas,” Nikolai Petrovsky, a professor of medicine at Australia’s Flinders University, told VOA. 

“So many papers questioning the origins were quickly rejected by the journal editors at Nature and Lancet, etc. without even being sent for review. This early rejection was therefore presumably largely not on scientific grounds but on political or other grounds determined at a high level within those journals,” he says.  

The editors of The Lancet and Nature reject the complaints, saying scientific merit determines the submissions they pick to publish and not politics. 

A World Health Organization-led team earlier this year ruled the lab-leak theory “extremely unlikely,” and favored the prevailing standard narrative that the coronavirus most likely originated in a Wuhan wet market, jumping from an animal, likely a bat or pangolin, to humans. But the WHO inquiry has come under increasing criticism from some prominent Western scientists — as well as Western governments — who say the Chinese authorities blocked the WHO team during a four-week visit to Wuhan in January making the international probe worthless. 

Petrovsky is one of dozens of scientists skeptical of the natural-spillover theory who say their efforts to point out inconsistencies in the quickly established standard narrative was met with silence, rejection and hostility by the editors of major Western science journals.  

Day of reckoning 

Another, Richard Ebright, a professor of chemical biology at Rutgers University in New Jersey, says there should be a “day of reckoning.” In an email exchange with VOA he said: “Untruthful statements and improper actions by scientists and science journalists who established and enforced the false narrative extended far beyond refusing to consider papers challenging the false narrative.”  

Ebright and others allege some non-peer-reviewed were rushed into print, if they supported the conventional narrative. Those articles in turn set the tone for general media coverage, they add. “Starting in January 2020 and continuing through early 2021, a small group of scientists, and a larger group of science journalists, established and enforced the false narrative that scientific evidence supported natural spillover and a false narrative that this was the scientific consensus,” says Ebright.  

But Magdalena Skipper, editor-in-chief of Nature, says this is not so. “I would like to be very clear that Nature has never rejected a paper on the basis that it does not fit with a particular narrative or conventional wisdom; certainly not on my watch,” she told VOA. 

In an email exchange, she added: “We make decisions based solely on whether research meets our criteria for publication — robust original scientific research (where conclusions are sufficiently supported by the available evidence), of outstanding scientific importance, which reaches a conclusion of interest to a multidisciplinary readership; and we remain completely independent. All editors consider all submissions on the basis of their scientific merits alone and no subject is ever excluded from publication because the conclusions may be controversial.” 

US inquiry 

Last month, U.S. President Joe Biden instructed American intelligence agencies to investigate whether the virus may have been engineered and leaked from a Chinese lab. Biden has given the agencies three months to report back.

The central focus of the investigation is on the Wuhan Institute of Virology in China as suspicions mount that the novel bat-derived virus roiling the world, and which has led to at least four million deaths, may have leaked from its lab, a claim Beijing has furiously denied.  

Biden’s order came after U.S. intelligence discovered more details about three researchers at the Wuhan lab who fell ill in November 2019, several weeks before the first identified case of the outbreak — and more than a month before China informed WHO of “cases of pneumonia” of an “unknown cause” had been detected.  The researchers were hospitalized with symptoms consistent with both COVID-19, the disease caused by the coronavirus, but also with common respiratory illnesses, according to the intelligence report first publicly disclosed by The Wall Street Journal. 

Britain’s intelligence agencies — along with other Western European security services — are assisting the new American-led probe, according to officials on both sides of the Atlantic.   

China’s authorities have denied there was any leak from the Wuhan lab, which conducts research on viruses and receives some funding from the U.S. government. Last year, Chinese propagandists blamed the coronavirus outbreak on an American Army sports delegation, which visited Wuhan just before the outbreak, and have also touted several other theories, which have been subsequently discredited by prominent virologists and epidemiologists. 

Scientists skeptical from the start of the natural-spillover theory, including Petrovsky, Ebright and a so-called Paris Group of scientists, which drafted two open letters on the origins of coronavirus, say an inquiry into the role of major science journals is in order. Much of the focus has been on The Lancet and Nature but other leading  journals have come under criticism, including Science, an academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 

“This pandemic has exposed just how vulnerable our scientific institutions including our academies, universities and scientific journals are to politicization and covert influence,” says Petrovsky. “At the same time as exerting undue influence over Western journals, China is launching hundreds of its own journals over which it will have direct control and are offering easy routes to publication and incentives for scientists to publish in them,” he adds.  

“An inquiry by Congress into this might be a good first step although this is also a much broader international issue, that should ultimately involve an international effort to fix these problems,” he told VOA. 

Petrovsky says he and others faced tremendous hurdles in getting published papers casting doubt on the natural-spillover theory. He says if a rare paper was initially accepted for consideration, it fell at the second stage when it was sent to reviewers to consider its merits and would then be rejected. “Almost all the scientific community, from which reviewers are selected, had been indoctrinated by the misleading and heavily manipulative early Lancet and Nature Medicine commentaries that suggested any questioning of the origins should be seen as an attack by conspiracy theorists from the extreme right,” he says. 

Magdalena Skipper, the British geneticist and the first woman to edit Nature in its 150-year history, says editorial decision-making is kept strictly separate from the wider commercial interests of Springer Nature, the German-British academic publisher that owns Nature.  

“We have always been and continue to be scrupulous in keeping any business commercial interests Springer Nature may have, in China or anywhere else, totally separate from our editorial processes,” she said. Nature and its sister titles have sought to reflect “the science of the pandemic, as new evidence has come to light,” Skipper adds. 

Springer Nature has offices spread across the world and publishes around 3,000 journals, including Nature and Scientific American. Four years ago following a Financial Times report, the company acknowledged it had been blocking access in China to hundreds of academic articles touching on subjects seen as sensitive by the Chinese Communist government. The company said less than one percent of its content available online in global markets had been impacted.  

Springer Nature has dozens of cooperation and sponsorship agreements with Chinese educational and government institutions. So, too, does the owner of The Lancet, Elsevier, a Netherlands-based publishing company specializing in scientific, technical, and medical content.   

The Lancet also told VOA that neither politics nor commerce play any part in shaping editorial policies. In a statement it said: “The Lancet is an editorially independent journal. Scientific discussion and debate are an important part of the scientific process, and the Lancet journals welcome responses from readers and the wider scientific community to content published in the journals. The Lancet journals set extremely high standards and papers are selected for publication based on the strength of the science and the credibility of the scientific argument.” 

https://www.voanews.com/covid-19-pandemic/chinese-lab-leak-investigators-demand-inquiry-role-science-journals-played-during