CubaBrief: Thousands in Cuba had COVID-19 before first case reported. Response to pandemic crisis: Petition to end internal blockade, and humanitarian aid campaign

In Cuba, under the Castro regime there is a history of under- reporting outbreaks of Dengue in 1997, Cholera in 2012, and Zika in 2017 that impacted not just Cubans, but visitors to the island. Cubans who blew the whistle at the time were jailed by the Castro dictatorship and declared prisoners of conscience by Amnesty International in 1997 and 2012 respectively.  Havana initially got away with the Zika coverup in 2017, but contact tracing cases of tourists from around the world who had contracted this virus, that causes catastrophic birth defects, led back to Cuba. Researchers reported that thousands of Zika cases had not been reported.

This history led many to reason that this was happening again with COVID-19. Castro regime officials falsely claimed throughout February and March 2020 that Cuba was a safe harbor with effective treatments for Wuhan Virus for visiting tourists.

Officials refused to close schools, or take other precautions, Cubans desperately began to take steps on their own against the pandemic, having learned about it on the internet. Teachers, ignoring the regime’s orders, closed schools and sent children home. The Catholic church, aware of the danger presented by public gatherings, suspended religious services.

Cuban demographer Sergio Díaz-Brisquet interviewed by Nora Gamez of the Miami Herald explained that “preventive measures were taken late, and many have not been implemented fully, mostly because the government does not have enough resources. There is not even enough soap.” Mr. Díaz-Brisquet  added in the same article that “Cuba has other health indicators such as an aged population and higher percentages of people with pre-existing conditions that would suggest they have a more serious problem.”

Social distancing is not being practiced in Cuba in massive lines to obtain food.

Social distancing is not being practiced in Cuba in massive lines to obtain food.

Cuba’s beleaguered independent journalists, and activists raised the alarm, some were picked up, interrogated, fined and threatened with prison to silence them. The dictatorship has been applying Decree 370 that restricts speech on the internet.  International human rights organizations and groups inside the island have condemned the measure. Meanwhile the official media insisted that the country was prepared for the epidemic, that tourists were still welcome while the pandemic ran its course elsewhere. Officials said Cuba’s sun was “a good antidote” and continued to advertise their false claims on social media targeting European and North American audiences.

Screen Shot 2020-05-08 at 8.03.50 AM.png

All of this turned out to be false, and obtaining accurate numbers on the impact of the pandemic in Cuba remains difficult.

Cuban-American economist Carmelo Mesa-Lago said in a Harvard webinar on May 1, 2020 that in Cuba, “there is no independent entity that can report its own [coronavirus] figures or criticize the government’s data.”

According to data reviewed by the Miami Herald and reported by Nora Gamez, “in the week ending on March 21 there were 144,095 newly reported ‘acute respiratory illnesses.’ By March 28, the number of new weekly cases of people with acute respiratory diseases rose to 188,816, more than double the weekly average this year. ‘Not only could the increase be explained by a COVID-19 outbreak, it most likely does reflect the COVID-19 outbreak based on when it started and what has been going on in the world,’ said Dr. Aileen Marty, an expert on infectious tropical diseases and director of the Florida International University Health Travel Medicine Program.”

Statistics were published by the regime’s Pedro Kourí Institute of Tropical Medicine in its weekly bulletins. Data had been recorded “since at least the early 2000s to monitor acute respiratory diseases, a category that includes pneumonia, influenza, the common cold and coronaviruses such as new one that causes COVID-19.

In less than a month (March 15 – April 4th) the Institute “reported 491,494 cases of acute respiratory diseases.”  This was a dramatic increase from measurements taken in Cuba over the past five years, and the months prior to March 2020. There is a delay in reporting of one to three weeks.

Consider that at the same time it was not until March 11th that Cuban officials made public the presence of COVID-19 in Cuba, but implied it had been brought into the island two days earlier by three Italian tourists.

By March 22, according to Gamez in the same Miami Herald article “Cuban labs had only conducted 518 tests despite having 954 suspected cases in hospitals and more than 30,000 people being monitored for COVID-19-like symptoms at home.”

This has real consequences outside of Cuba. The state of Florida has 37,020 cases as of May 6, 2020, and the top two cities with COVID-19 just happen to have the largest populations of Cuban-Americans (Miami, Dade 8,386 and Hialeah 1,639 cases respectively). It is true that South Florida is an international destination, and others must have also brought the novel coronavirus there, but a fair number of Cuban travelers most likely also contributed to these numbers, especially in Hialeah.

How to respond to these challenges?

1. Travelers coming from Cuba should be screened for COVID-19 and that would include asymptomatic cases. If testing is unavailable then quarantine should be considered as an option.

2. The Castro regime is responsible for the shortages that Cubans are suffering from, and Cuba’s civil society has organized a petition drive to end the internal blockade, and they are gathering signatures.

3. The Pan American Foundation for Democracy, in coordination with the City of Miami, is calling on all Cuban residents of South Florida and the U.S. to send donations to provide humanitarian assistance to the Caribbean island, which is consumed in a crisis of shortages in the midst of the coronavirus pandemic.  Humanitarian aid will be collected on Saturday, May 16, at the Mana Wynwood Convention Center located at 318 NW 23rd Street, Miami, FL 33127. Those interested in sending money can do so through the web site: https://cubaencrisis.org/donaciones/.

The Miami Herald,  May 5, 2020

Thousands of people in Cuba may have had early, undiagnosed cases of coronavirus

By Nora Gámez Torres

Four days after the World Health Organization declared the coronavirus outbreak a global pandemic on March 11, a Cuban government official assured tourists that the Caribbean island was a “safe destination.”

The country continued promoting tourism until a sudden change in position on March 20, when, in a night television show, Cuban leader Miguel Díaz-Canel said he was ordering travel restrictions.

At the time, Cuban health authorities said there were only 25 confirmed cases of coronavirus infections. But a troubling report by Cuba’s renowned epidemiology center shows the country was experiencing a stunning spike in new cases of “acute respiratory diseases” that experts believe includes people with COVID-19 who were not counted as such.

According to data reviewed by the Miami Herald, in the week ending on March 21 there were 144,095 newly reported “acute respiratory illnesses.” By March 28, the number of new weekly cases of people with acute respiratory diseases rose to 188,816, more than double the weekly average this year.

“Not only could the increase be explained by a COVID-19 outbreak, it most likely does reflect the COVID-19 outbreak based on when it started and what has been going on in the world,” said Dr. Aileen Marty, an expert on infectious tropical diseases and director of the Florida International University Health Travel Medicine Program.

“It is very probable that many people in Cuba had the virus in March and were counted simply as Acute Respiratory Illness,” she added.

The statistics were published by the island’s Pedro Kourí Institute of Tropical Medicine in its weekly bulletins. The data come from a mandatory reporting system by the Cuban Ministry of Public Health in place since at least the early 2000s to monitor acute respiratory diseases, a category that includes pneumonia, influenza, the common cold and previously known coronaviruses that may produce symptoms similar to COVID-19, the illness caused by the novel coronavirus.

In total, the institute, known as IPK and a key player in the country’s coronavirus response, reported 491,494 cases of acute respiratory diseases between March 15 and April 4.

Dr. Carlos Espinal, an epidemiologist and expert in tropical diseases who heads the Global Health Consortium at FIU, also believes the data probably include unreported cases of people with COVID-19.

“At present, countries only report confirmed cases and confirmed deaths at the hospital sites. We know by now that the numbers are higher in both indicators,” he told the Herald. “What you see in Cuba probably corresponds to this key issue of under-reporting cases and deaths.”

An uncommon pattern and the highest number in five years

Until March 14, it seemed like a typical year for respiratory diseases in Cuba, with fewer weekly cases than in 2019.

Then suddenly, in the week ending on March 21, there was an avalanche of people seeking treatment for respiratory illnesses, as many as 144,095, a 47 percent jump in cases from the previous week.

That figure is also 50 percent higher than the one reported in the same week in 2019.

What happened next is unclear, because the IPK has not published a bulletin with the data corresponding to the week between March 22 and 28. However, according to the accumulated total figures reported for 2020, there were another 188,816 cases during that missing week.

That unpublished figure is the highest number reported since 2015, according to a Herald analysis of bulletin data comprising five years. The next highest number, 167,570, was published in the week ending on Sept. 24, 2015.

When the IPK resumed publishing data for the week ending on April 4, there were another 158,583 cases — 70,698 more than during the same week in 2019, an 80 percent increase.

The IPK publishes figures with a delay of from about one to three weeks.

An analysis of the data since 2015 found that weekly numbers can swing in the thousands, but do not usually rise so fast and so high. Even in years with many reported illnesses, like 2015 and 2016, the numbers rose incrementally.

There are a few examples in the statistics reviewed when cases grew sharply from one weekly bulletin to the next, but those involved reports that included fewer days in the week or holidays.

Last Thursday, the IPK reported a 33 percent drop in new cases during the week ending on April 11, to 106,647.

Coronavirus as the most likely explanation

In the bulletins, the institute did not explain the increase in acute respiratory illnesses nor link it to the circulation of the new virus. But the emerging data might have led the Cuban government to impose travel restrictions effectively shutting down tourism.

By March 21 — the date of the first bulletin showing the jump in numbers — there were only 35 confirmed cases of coronavirus infections officially reported, and the government said there was no community transmission.

If there is medical evidence to support that claim, it has not been made public. At the time, testing was severely limited. As of March 22, Cuban labs had only conducted 518 tests despite having 954 suspected cases in hospitals and more than 30,000 people being monitored for COVID-19-like symptoms at home.

Marty, who is co-editor of One Health, the Official Journal of the International Federation for Tropical Medicine, dismissed other potential explanations — like a statistical error, a bad flu season, or climate conditions — to account for the increase in acute respiratory illnesses in late March and early April.

“The idea of seasonal infection associates a specific infection with a distinct season of the year,” she said. “This was accurate to some extent when humans lived and worked outdoors with minimal protection from even the most severe climate conditions. Today, in most countries on earth, including Cuba, the overwhelming majority of person-to-person transmission events happen indoors.”

Data reported by Cuba to the Pan American Health Organization also suggest that influenza was not the main reason for the soaring numbers.

In its weekly influenza situation report, based on data provided by health ministers in the Americas, PAHO said that as of March 20, “influenza activity remained elevated” in Cuba. But Paho added that “percent influenza positivity decreased to moderate levels of intensity when compared to the average percent positivity observed during 2010-2019 seasons.”

Cuba stopped reporting new data to PAHO the following week.

“Flu in our Caribbean and tropical countries circulates all year round with peaks on April-May, September-October,” Espinal said. “What you see [in the IPK data] includes probably cases of Covid-19 in addition to other respiratory viruses.”

There is still another potential explanation that could partly account for the rise in reported cases of acute respiratory diseases.

Back in February, the government ordered primary doctors to monitor people who had traveled, and established medical control points at airports. On March 17, health authorities ordered thousands of medical students to knock on homes and look for people experiencing any symptoms like those of COVID-19.

The increased surveillance might have uncovered more cases than usual, and that could have skewed the data if the Ministry of Public Health included those numbers in its regular monitoring system.

But that reporting system usually includes only people diagnosed in medical facilities, not just surveyed for symptoms. The reports are not supposed to include mild cases, the kind that people usually treat themselves at home.

Even if more cases of acute illnesses were discovered and reported, that still leaves unanswered why several thousands of Cubans were sick at the time a new virus was spreading rapidly worldwide.

The IPK did not reply to an email request for comment. Two phone numbers that appear on the institute’s website were disconnected. Calls to another number listed in the official Cuban phone guide went unanswered.

Presented with the data analyzed by the Herald, Ashley Baldwin, a PAHO spokesperson, said the increase in respiratory diseases starting in mid-March was led by “the active investigation of people with respiratory symptoms, which is carried out by primary health care services in search of cases of COVID-19.”

“However, COVID-19 has been ruled out in most of these cases,” Baldwin said.

PAHO did not explain how Cuba was able to rule out the coronavirus, especially at a time when testing was minimal.

In a follow-up email, Baldwin mentioned that Cuba had “testing capabilities and reagents” since the second half of February and that the government was able to trace “all contacts” of people with COVID-19.

But Baldwin admitted that PAHO did not do any independent verification of Cuba’s claims of testing or,contact-tracing, and relied on the government for the information.

“PAHO does not independently verify data – our role is to work with all Member States to provide technical cooperation,” Baldwin said.

The spokesperson also suggested the increase in acute respiratory cases was linked to influenza despite the organization’s report stating the circulation of flu was “elevated” but moderate when compared to last year.

“During this time of year, the increase in acute respiratory cases is common in the country as it is the season with the greatest circulation of influenza,” she said.

Undercounting is common worldwide

After its initial denial that the virus could get out of control on the island, Cuban authorities have enforced quarantines and imposed hefty fines and even jail sentences on those not complying with social distancing and other measures to contain the outbreak.

On Monday, the Ministry of Public Health said 1,668 people had tested positive for COVID-19, and 69 had died.

The ministry’s numbers have raised eyebrows among dissidents and experts. They doubt the reported 3 percent positive rate in the coronavirus tests conducted so far, more typical of countries such as New Zealand with very different population density and economic conditions.

The island is facing a devastating economic crisis, with shortages of soap and significant disruptions in water services. And many Cubans spend most days in lines to buy food, defying any hopes of social isolation.

“Preventive measures were taken late, and many have not been implemented fully, mostly because the government does not have enough resources. There is not even enough soap,” Cuban demographer Sergio Díaz-Brisquet said. “Cuba has other health indicators such as an aged population and higher percentages of people with pre-existing conditions that would suggest they have a more serious problem.

“And they have misrepresented health data in the past, for example, regarding dengue epidemics,” he added.

The Cuban government has increased its diagnostic testing capacity thanks to donations by the World Health Organization and China. But it has not said much about antibody testing, which could help to understand how widespread the virus is in a community.

Experts around the world have warned about the probable undercount of cases of coronavirus and related deaths. The Financial Times studied mortality statistics across 14 countries and estimated that the global coronavirus death toll could be 60% higher than reported.

In Cuba, “there is no independent entity that can report its own [coronavirus] figures or criticize the government’s data,” Cuban-American economist Carmelo Mesa-Lago said in a Harvard webinar in which he gave a grim assessment about the impact of the pandemic on the island’s economy.

As has happened in the U.S. and many other countries, where the coronavirus started circulating earlier than first thought, those March reports suggest that many more Cubans could have had the virus. Without widespread antibody testing, it might never be known.

“All the available evidence,” Marty said, “reflects a large outbreak of COVID-19 in Cuba that became evident on the week ending March 21.”

Follow Nora Gámez Torres on Twitter: @ngameztorres

https://www.miamiherald.com/news/nation-world/world/americas/cuba/article242382316.html

Free Muse, May 6, 2020

Artist Assistance

Cuba: Rapper arrested over COVID-19 video

6 May 2020

Image: Maykel Osorbo / Maykel Osorbo on Facebook

Image: Maykel Osorbo / Maykel Osorbo on Facebook

15 April 2020: Cuban rapper Maykel Osorbo was detained by the National Revolution Police while recording a Facebook Live video in which he spoke about local politics and COVID-19, reported CubaNet.  

Police claimed that the artist was broadcasting images that are illegal under Decree 370 and accused the artist of “contempt” and contributing to the “spread of epidemics”

The video of Osorbo’s arrest is circulated on social media channels.

According to Knight Center for Journalism in the Americas, Decree 370 establishes legal norms for the “informatization of society” in Cuba and punishes “hosting a site on servers located in a foreign country, other than as a mirror or replica of the main site on servers located in national territory” and “to disseminate, through public networks of data transmission, information contrary to the social interest, morals, good manners and integrity of people.”  

Additionally, epidemic propagation is regulated in Cuba by Article 187 of the Penal Code and by Decree 272 /article 19.  

This is Osorbo’s second arrest this year as he was arrested by the police in Habana on 17 March 2020 and detained for four hours without any explanation given according to Ciber Cuba.  

Osorbo was sitting at Obispo Street with two other people when three police officers came up to the artist and asked for his documents. When Osorbo asked for the reasoning behind the request, the police officers said that they just had orders.  

The police officers took the artist’s phone and handcuffed him while the other two people were not approached. Osorbo was taken to the police station where he waited for four hours for the chief to arrive. The chief never showed up and the artist was released. 

Osorbo published a video of his arrest on his Facebook profile.

Maykel Osorbo is a rapper who openly opposes the Cuban authorities in public statements and his songs. He has recently joined Movimiento San Isidro – the collective of artists that fight for freedom of artistic expression. 

Maykel Osorbo

about 2 months ago

Esta es la cruda realidad represión totalitaria, no ay de otra que seguir luchando, ok

https://freemuse.org/news/cuba-rapper-arrested-over-covid-19-video-freemuse/

Cubanet, May 6, 2020

Miami to receive donations to send humanitarian aid to Cuba

Mana Wynwood Convention Center (Foto: Internet)

Mana Wynwood Convention Center (Foto: Internet)

The Pan American Foundation for Democracy, in coordination with the City of Miami, is calling on all Cuban residents of South Florida and the U.S. to send donations to provide humanitarian help to the Caribbean island, which is consumed in a crisis of shortages in the midst of the coronavirus pandemic.

The humanitarian aid will be collected on Saturday, May 16, at the Mana Wynwood Convention Center located at 318 NW 23rd Street, Miami, FL 33127.

Dr. Omar Vento, the president of the Pan American Foundation for Democracy, said the drive is “a humanitarian act to help our brothers in Cuba” who are facing a situation that is unprecedented in recent history.

“We know the necessities of our own community, but we also know the generosity of the members of our community when it comes to helping those in need,” said Dr. Vento.

In a video conference, Rosa Maria Paya, the director of the citizen initiative Cuba Decide and also a member of the Pan American Foundation for Democracy, explained that the aid will be channeled through churches, opposition groups, and members of independent civil society on the island, who will make sure the most aid reaches as many people as possible.

“The insufficient response by the Cuban dictatorship to the current situation obligates us to share with all Cubans and help our family members and compatriots on the island. Cubans helping Cubans. It is not only our obligation, it also our right,” said Paya.

The opposition leader said that all those who want to help in this initiative can take or send their donations to the center and can also participate as volunteers in the collection of donations.

“The insufficient response of the Cuban dictatorship to this situation forces us to take sides with all Cubans to help our relatives and compatriots on the Island. Cubans helping Cubans. It is not only our obligation, but also our right, “said Payá.

The opponent stressed that all people who wish to contribute to the initiative can take or send their donation to that center and also participate as volunteers in collecting donations.

The initiative seeks to collect essential products that are essential for the inhabitants of the Island, such as detergent, laundry and body soap, masks and gloves, disinfectant and towels, diapers, painkillers (Tylenol or Acetaminophen) and canned products.

Payá also highlighted that those interested in sending money can do so through the address https://cubaencrisis.org/donaciones/.

“We are collaborating with multinational organizations that are dedicated to organizing supply chains to follow all the requirements and guarantee that the aid sent complies with the requirements of Customs in Cuba,” explained the young activist, adding that, in theory, there is no no legal recourse that can be used to prevent the Island’s regime from preventing aid from reaching its recipients.

“We have contacted a network of churches that have offered to receive and distribute this aid, as well as members of the opposition and civil society. We hope that there are no obstacles from the authorities of the dictatorship so that aid can be delivered without difficulties, “he said.

The initiative will be directly supported by the city of Miami, which will guarantee all the conditions for the collection and delivery of aid by sea.

“The inhabitants of Miami on many occasions have shown to have a huge heart and to be very generous, and this time it will not be the occasion,” said the Mayor of the city, Francis Suárez.

https://www.cubanet.org/noticias/miami-recibira-donaciones-para-enviar-ayuda-humanitaria-a-cuba/

IFEX Latin American & Caribbean Alliance, May 6, 2020

Joint Statement on Cuban Decree 370 and Limits On Freedom of Expression

The undersigned civil society organizations express our profound concern and condemnation of the persecution against independent journalists and civil society actors in Cuba. This persecution has increased since the beginning of the year, particularly during the health crisis resulting from the coronavirus pandemic.

Although repression of freedom of expression and freedom of press has been long-standing and systematic, the current wave of repression has been intensified by the application of Legal Decree 370 “ON THE COMPUTERIZATION OF CUBAN SOCIETY,” in force since July 4, 2019. At least 30 people have been subjected to interrogation, threats, and seizure of work equipment (especially that of journalists) for broadcasting their opinions on social media,  20 have been victims of 3,000-peso fines (120 US dollars), an amount triple the average monthly salary. Failure to pay these fines constitutes a crime punishable by six months in prison, a systematic approach that has enabled the Cuban State to sentence 7 civil society actors who are currently in prison.

We are particularly troubled by the arbitrary citations and detentions occurring during this pandemic, as they also contradict the recommendations of the World Health Organization to promote social distancing.

These facts demonstrate that the rights enshrined in the Cuban Constitution, but which have not been ratified with supplementary legislation, are merely empty words. Regarding freedom of expression, Article 54 of the Constitution states: “The State recognizes, upholds, and guarantees individuals’ freedom of thought, belief and expression,” and Article 55 asserts that “freedom of press” is a right that “is exercised in accordance with the law and to the good of society.” Additionally, this article establishes that “The principal means of social communication, in any of its forms and on any of its mediums, are the socialist property of the people or the political, social and grassroots organizations; and they are not subject to any other type of ownership. The State establishes the principles of organization and operation for all social media.”

We understand that these constitutional principles are highly contradictory. Initially, they recognize the freedoms of expression and press, and immediately thereafter, they restrict their exercise. In accordance with the Constitution, Legal Decree 370, specifically Article 68, Subsection i), vaguely establishes as a violation the act of “spreading information contrary to the common good, morals, decency, and integrity through public data transmission networks.” This clause contravenes the standards of freedom of expression and restricts this right based on objectives that are illegitimate according to the International Declaration of Human Rights.

The new Cuban Constitution, Legal Decree 370, and the actions of the Cuban State deeply contradict Article 19 of the International Declaration of Human Rights and Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), signed by Cuba on February 28, 2008 but not since ratified. This framework, under which the Cuban State can sanction the use of information and communication technologies, inhibits the exercise of freedom of expression using such tools and platforms. Furthermore, it represents a real and ongoing threat of punishment for practically any opinion expressed that could be classified, at the State’s discretion, as a legal violation and lead to imprisonment. Additionally, this lack of predictability has a prohibitive and intimidating effect on the collective dimension of freedom of expression and assembly.

We want to emphasize that Reporters Without Borders has listed Cuba as the country with the least press freedom in the Americas, placing it in 171st place and among the bottom ten in the global ranking in its last annual report. According to Freedom House, Cuba is the country with the least freedom on the net in the Americas and the fourth worst in the world, among the 65 countries monitored.[1] According to the CIVICUS Monitor, which tracks the freedoms of association, expression and peaceful assembly, its civic space is rated as “closed”.

In 2019, the UN Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression expressed his concern about the diverse mechanisms of repression in Cuba.[2] In his 2019 report, the Inter-American Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression outlined the systematic persecution of independent journalists who publish information and opinions on topics of public interest and in his statement on April 18, 2020, he expressed his concern with restrictions on freedom of expression and access to information in the State’s response to COVID-19, highlighting the cases of journalists fined under Legal Decree 370.

We call on the international community, governments, civil society and international human rights organizations to press the Cuban government to cease this persecution and harassment of independent Cuban journalists and their families immediately, to return their confiscated belongings, and to allow them the full and free exercise of their freedoms, thereby granting the Cuban citizenry free access to information.

To the European External Action Service (EEAS), we urge you to follow the stances and explicit mandate[3] of your Parliament regarding the Agreement of Political Dialogue and Cooperation with Cuba, requesting that legal reforms be made to guarantee the freedoms of press, association and demonstration. We also incite you to actively support the civil society groups and individuals defending human rights in Cuba.

To the United Nations Human Rights Council and the Office of the High Commissioner, we petition you to make a public declaration recommending that the Cuban State revise its legislation and abolish any norms that restrict freedom of opinion and expression.

We appeal to the General Assembly of the Organization of American States (OAS), to take a stand and apply the same standards as required for all of the countries in the region, based on the reports of the IACHR on the human rights situation in Cuba. Cuba is a member state of the OAS and has not denounced the Charter. It assumed an obligation when it signed the Inter-American system’s instruments on human rights, and its current suspension does not release it from complying this obligation.

We reiterate our full solidarity with the independent journalists and civil society actors persecuted for exercising their freedom of expression.

[1] Freedom on the Net, 2019, Freedom House.

[2] Comunicaciones AL CUB 1/2019, OL CUB 2/2019, AL CUB 5/2019, AL CUB 7/2019

[3] Resolución “Cuba, en particular el caso de José Daniel Ferrer” P9_TA(2019)0073 del 28 de Noviembre del 2019

https://ifex.org/joint-statement-on-cuban-decree-370-and-limits-on-freedom-of-expression/